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大众要投资建设覆盖全美的充电站网络,特斯拉也没闲着

这是传统车企与新兴车企在充电设施上的对决。

2015年9月18日突然曝出的“排放门”让大众付出了惨痛的代价,这一事件的影响至今仍在持续发酵——作为与加州空气资源委员会(CARB)和美国环保局(EPA)达成协议的一部分,大众宣布将在美投资20亿美元建设电动汽车充电站网络,我们对比了坐拥最大充电网络的特斯拉,发现后者也在丰富着其全球充电站网络的布局。

CARB的交涉果然不一般,根据大众的规划,其在美20亿美元总投资中的8亿美元会投在加州,大众成立了名为Electrify America的子公司,专门负责充电站建设和投资事宜。36氪了解到,这些充电站并非大众集团旗下汽车专用充电器,兼容CCS(欧美主流充电标准)、CHAdeMO(日本主流充电标准)和OCPP(开放充电联盟标准)。大众会通过美国各地的零排放车辆预测渗透率及当地的充电站供需差距来决定第一轮投资的区域。预计首轮资金将投资扶持400多家私人充电站,共计2000~3000个充电桩。

大众要投资建设覆盖全美的充电站网络,特斯拉也没闲着

以上充电桩指的是输出功率在50kW的直流充电桩,也就意味着如果要充满一辆特斯拉Model S 90,耗时会达到2.5个小时左右(由于电池化学特性,后期功率会下降)。作为对比,特斯拉超级充电站目前150kW的充电速度是上述充电站的3倍左右。

当然大众也不会把大把钱全都投在这些没有竞争力的工程上,大众证实,这些充电站中有一些功率达到150kW和320kW的直流快速充电站。大众在公告中写到,这50多个快速充电站会覆盖连接美国大城市的高速公路网,平均每个充电站会配置5个充电桩。根据大众的说法,320kW级别的输出功率会使电动汽车充电时间缩减至15~20分钟,使美国的充电速度提升3~6倍。

大众这是要在美国本土和特斯拉正面交锋了,在全球充电站网络建设方面,特斯拉目前暂时处于领先,上文中大众“快速充电站覆盖连接美国大城市的高速公路网”的做法特斯拉已经玩过一遍了。作为领先者,特斯拉在这一领域有无进展呢?36氪梳理了特斯拉最近的充电站网络数量,发现特斯拉的扩张速度也不容忽视。

截止2016年年底,特斯拉在全球共有约698座超级充电站,4311个超级充电桩。时间过去4个半月,现在打开特斯拉美国官网,可以看到上述两项指标已经分别变为828座和5339个。从充电桩数量来看,增长了约25%,增长速度基本符合全年全球数量翻一番的目标。

除了这种适用于长途旅行的快充网络,特斯拉开开辟了输出功率更小、耗时更长的“目的地充电网络”,特斯拉与热门出行目的地的酒店、餐厅、商场和度假村等合作建立充电站,在车主进行逛街、度假等耗时较长的活动时,通过目的地充电器进行充电。合作的形式为特斯拉免费或以超低价格为合作方提供前2个充电器,而合作方负责支付电费,得到的是借此招揽的特斯拉车主客户。

调研机构Arxcis统计的数据显示,特斯拉在过去几个月中的目的地网络建设实现了高速增长,其中欧洲地区翻番,在瑞士、德国、法国、和西班牙的目的地充电网络都翻了一倍以上。在2016年4月的时候,欧洲地区的目的地充电地点只有150个,现在已经完全覆盖了中欧和西欧的大部分地区,达到1500个以上。从全球来看,目的地充电地点总数也已经达到了5020个。

在去年特斯拉Model 3的发布会上,特斯拉CEO Elon Musk表示,为应对Model 3带来的充电站供需失衡,到2017年底,特斯拉超级充电桩数量将达到7000个,而目的地充电器的数量达到1.5万个。如今超级充电桩的数量达到5339个,考虑到每个目的地充电地点至少会有2个充电器,那么目的地充电器的数量也超过了1万个。对于特斯拉来说,在接下来的时间里完成Musk的目标不算费力。

在下一代超级充电站技术上,去年Musk曾嘲讽竞争对手350kW是“小孩的玩具”(要知道当时特斯拉超级充电站的输出功率也只有150kW)。但直到现在,特斯拉仍未宣布下一代超级充电站的输出功率。考虑到输出功率越大,对动力电池的考验越大,我们推测,下一代超级充电站技术会与使用特斯拉2170新型电池的Model 3同步上市商用。

说回包括大众在内的传统车企与特斯拉在充电网络上的较量,不得不承认,特斯拉的执行力还是非常强悍的,2017年第一季度刚过,建设目标已经完成过半,值得传统车企深思啊。当然传统车企的优势在于抱团作战,如果把所有达成合作的传统车企在充电站建设上的投资都统计进来的话,特斯拉的优势就没那么明显了。

随着电动汽车产业的继续发展,这场竞争才刚刚开始。

发布者:投资网发布,转载请说明出处:https://www.touzi.io/archives/90

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